Maybe you’ve heard “probiotics” before from advertising dairy products or yoghurt. But you know, what is the probiotics? Probiotics are beneficial bacteria in our digestive that keep our digestive system to remain healthy. According to the FAO/WHO (2002), probiotics are defined as microorganisms that live and when consumed may provide health benefits to the host, and is strain specific. Almost all types of probiotics are lactic acid bacteria group that is generally used in the fermentation industry. In nature, the bacteria are able to live in various places and growing conditions, such as in plant, animal and human digestive tract, and various fermented food products.
Probiotics are live as bacteria, so how can help maintain digestive health ?. Probiotics are good bacteria for the intestine, which helps balance the ecosystem in the body, especially the digestive tract. Probiotics developments in the digestive tract can suppress the growth of harmful bacterial strains.
Guts is one of the organs contained in the digestive tract that also has a normal flora. The bacteria can be found in the large intestine as much as 1011- 1012 bacteria per gram. In the small intestine bacteria also can be found, but there were not as many as in the large intestine is about 104- 107 bacteria per gram. Probiotics beneficial to the body because it shows the important physiological role in maintaining the balance of intestinal microflora.
The Facts Of Bacteia In Our Body
Intestinal bacteria are divided into two parts, namely the beneficial and adverse. Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli are beneficial bacteria in the human body. The decline in the Bifidobacteria in the gut may be a problem in the gut like a buildup of harmful substances. It is important to maintain the number of beneficial bacteria in the gut. There are some interesting facts about probiotics in our body:
- Every baby was born without the bacteria, but some time after birth, while babies cry, some species of bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Enterococcus entering the intestine through the mouth, breed and become dominant. Nevertheless, along with giving breast feed (ASI), Bifidobacteria increased rapidly within about 5 days after birth, and increased to 90% at day 7 – 10. This condition is maintained during the period of breastfeeding. However, during the period in which the baby begins to eat food like most adults, the proportion of Bifidobacteria in the intestinal microbiota decreases slowly to 20 or less than 10%.
- From childhood to adulthood, the ratio is generally stable although depending on the type of food and human health conditions. Nevertheless, the proportion of Bifidobacteria decreased in old age. Babies who are breast-feeding has a composition of 99% Bifidobacteria, which is referred to as Bifidobacterial microbiota. Where as in adult humans, the proportion of Bifidobacteria is only 11.7%.
- Lactobacillus, also known as beneficial bacteria, but the amount is far below the number of Bifidobacteria in the gut. In the colon, the number of Lactobacilli generally 1/100 – 1/1000 of Bifidobacterium. Lactobacillus bigger role in the intestine, while Bifidobacterium role in the large intestine. Lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacteria included in a group of “good” bacteria to humans, and generally meets the GRAS status (Generally Recognized As Safe). This group of bacteria can metabolize different types of carbohydrates into lactic acid fermentative and not rotting the protein.
The types of bacteria that are good
Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus type commonly found in probiotic products are:
- Bifidobacterium bifidum
- Bifidobacterium breve
- Bifidobacterium infantis
- Bifidobacterium longum
- Lactobacillus reuteri
- Lactobacillus rhamnosus
- Lactobacillus plantarum
- Lactobacillus casei
- Lactobacillus acidophilus
- Lactobacillus GG
The yeast species used as probiotics: Saccharomyces boulardii. Some bacteria commonly used in products but without the effects probiotics:1) Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and 2) Streptococcus thermophilus. Some other bacteria mentioned in probiotic products: 1) Bacillus coagulans, 2) Lactobacillus bifidus, 3) Lactobacillus caucasicus.
Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus are the popular types of bacteria, are often added to yogurt and probiotic supplements. Effective at supporting digestive health.
Foods Contain Probiotics Naturally
Yogurt is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. one of the bacteria contained in yogurt is Bifidobacterium Bifidum. Fermentation of lactose produces lactic acid which works on milk protein that makes yogurt more dense and has the texture and flavor. Generally yoghurt is made using cow’s milk, but there are some yoghurt also use soy milk.
beside that, in yogurt also found Lactobacillus acidophilus. This is a beneficial bacteria that exist naturally in the mouth and digestive tract of animals and humans. It may help reduce bloating, repair the damage to the gastrointestinal tract caused by antibiotics, as well as maintain intestinal health.
Yoghurt has been consumed for more than 4500 years and is well known throughout the world today. Its nutrients that are good for health, such as protein, contains calcium, riboflavin, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12.
2. Powdered milk
The second foods contain probiotics naturally is from milk products. Powdered milk is milk powder made from dried milk solid. Powdered milk has a longer durability than liquid milk, this is because the water vapor content is very low so it does not need to be stored in the refrigerator. Generally powdered milk containing Bifidobacterium bifidum high enough.
There are three types of milk powder:
- Formula, powdered milk for infants with a formula specially adapted to ASI and plus some vitamins, minerals and iron.
- Full cream milk or whole milk milk fat steeper ± 26%. Good for malnourished children. Full cream milk protein content and lactose and carbohydrate is lower when compared with skim milk. Instead fat as well as vitamins A higher full cream milk from skim milk.
- Skim milk (not fat) contains very little fat and do not contain vitamin A and D. But high levels of protein and carbohydrate.
3. Butter Milk
Buttermilk is the milk that is produced as a byproduct of making butter from fermented cream. Buttermilk is a liquid sour, slightly sweet, and very rich or thick and creamy.
Cheese is a dairy product produced from the milk protein casein coagulation process. Cheese is generally made using cow’s milk, but there is also made using the milk of other mammals such as goats, sheep, reindeer, buffalo, camel and yak.
The cheese is made from milk acidified by including bacteria, namely Lactobacillus and Streptococcus thermophillus bulgarius. To change the milk sugar (lactose) into lactic acid (lactic acid) is pre-heated milk at a certain temperature with the intent to kill harmful bacteria in order to succeed in the manufacturing process. Furthermore, the added enzyme mixture containing renin to agglomerate to form a layer of milk. The enzyme will add aroma and flavor, will also digest proteins and fats into amino acids.
For groceries, cheeses have health benefits for the body, among others, namely: as a source of nutrition, dental health, dental health, prevent cancer, increase body weight, keeping blood pressure.
Cheese contains a number of nutrients such as protein, fat, and calcium, as well as several types of vitamins and minerals. But it is wise to consume the cheese if it’s on a diet to lose weight, because cheese contains quite a lot of fat
5. Soy sauce
Soy sauce made from soy black bean. To speed up the fermentation usually mixed with carbohydrate or energy source in the form of rice flour or rice, while the color of the solution ketchup occur, depending on the time. Soaking soybeans done in a salt solution, then the manufacture of soy sauce fermentation called salt. Fermentation in the production of soy sauce using Aspergillus fungus wentii and Rhizopus sp. Let your attention some soy sauce on the market, there are thick, some are thin. Ketchup is thick because a lot of added sugar, palm sugar or palm sugar, while the aqueous soy sauce because it contains more salt. There is also a fish sauce, shrimp sauce, and so on. It can be done because during the manufacturing process there are shrimp into it.
Pickled vegetables are preserved vegetables with the acid fermentation. The bacteria that used were Lactobacillus sp., Streptococcus sp., And Pediococcus. The microorganisms transform the sugars contained in vegetables into lactic acid. Lactic acid that formed can limit the growth of other microorganisms and gives a distinctive flavor to the pickles
Tempe is a popular food in Indonesia. Although the food was simple, but tempe has or contains a vegetable protein source that is high enough. Tempe is made from soybeans with the help of the fungus Rhizopus sp. This fungus will transform soybean protein complexes that stodgy into simple digestible protein for their chemical changes in proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. During the fermentation process soybeans into soybean, will produce antibiotics that would prevent stomach illnesses such as diarrhea.
8. Fermented milk
A wide variety of fermented milk products have been claimed as a probiotic product, is food containing live microbes that have beneficial effects for health. In general, probiotics are lactic acid bacteria. probiotics cultures that generally the most widely used in dairy products are Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria.
In fermented milk, is the dominant microbial group of lactic acid bacteria. During the fermentation process, the bacteria will produce metabolites that can cause changes in taste and shape on milk and could inhibit the growth of bacteria and pathogen destroyer. Lactic acid bacteria are probiotics, have the ability to survive and colonize the intestine and produce lactic acid and bacteriocins and stimulates the onset of immunity. Lactic acid bacteria play a role maintaining the balance of intestinal flora and helps boost the immune system.
Poi is a staple of Hawaii, that is made from the taro plant that pounded until it becomes dough. The food actually has not been officially recognized as a probiotics food.
The fermentation process using yeast or yeast bread, a kind of fungus. If you have noticed the opportunity of making bread or donuts, then the flour dough expands. Yeast is added to the flour dough will make the fermentation process, which will produce carbon dioxide gas and alcohol. Carbon dioxide gas can be useful to develop bread, while alcohol is allowed to evaporate. Furthermore, it would appear if the dough is roasted will look more expanded and increased its size, this is because gas expands when the temperature is high. The result is as you see the bread will be yellowish and soft, but if not lucky to be hard and dense bread
11. Dark Chocolate
The chocolate process involving the various stages of the process. To obtain the best results of chocolate, cocoa pods harvested in ripe condition is perfect. Fruit is cut and stacked carefully, then cut to open its nut. At the farm level, cocoa beans fermented and dried before being shipped to the chocolate factory for further processing. the fermentation is resistant chocolate gets the content of probiotics. So, no doubt that Health benefits of dark chocolate for human body is very important.
One type of salad that contains high levels of probiotics are sauerkraut. salad obtain probiotics fermentation process.
This foods derived from cherry country. This food is produced by fermenting soybeans with salt and a mold called kojikin.
Yakult is a fermented beverage. yakult small bottle containing 6.5 lactobacillus bacteria. This is good for digestive health
Kombucha comes from Japan. on the claim that the drink has many health benefits (Health benefits of kombucha tea), especially to clean the intestines from harmful bacteria.
16. Soy milk
Soybeans naturally contain some very good probiotics for digestive health. For processing into milk, this bacteria still exist.
Kefir is similar to yogurt, because it is derived from fermented milk products combined with kefir grains. Kefir has been consumed for more than 3000 years by the people of Europe such as Russia and Turkey.
18. Other Fermentation Products
Some other fermentation product containing probiotics is Cimory and Sauerkraut
Side effect Of Probiotics
Here are some of the side effects associated with the consumption of probiotics.
- Digestive problems.
- Infection. The population of viable bacteria in a probiotic supplement can dominate the intestine, causing infection.
- Overstimulation. The immune system can be thought probiotics as a foreign agent causing the same response as the infection.
- Metabolic Changes.
Avoid Side Effects
Risks associated with probiotics would be larger in infants or young children, the elderly, or those with weakened immune systems. try to consult a doctor before taking probiotics.