Colonoscopy is a procedure for detecting abnormalities in the colon and rectum. In medical, it is a procedure that allows the examiner to a gastroenterologist to evaluate the inside of the colon. This process is done by inserting a colonoscope with a camera into the rectum. Colonoscope is a flexible tube that has a length of four feet with a camera and a light source at its tip. The tip of the colonoscope is inserted into the anus slowly, under visual control, gut-deep into the rectum through the cecum, which is the first part of the colon.
Colonoscopy is a screening tool that is recommended in patients aged over 50 years. It has a handle which is flexible so that it can follow the contour of the colon, high resolution with magnification at a short distance, and tools as well as cleaners for washing, mucosal biopsy and electrocautery.
The reasoning for colonoscopy
Colonoscopy can be done for many reasons. Most often it was done to investigate the cause of blood in the stool, abdominal pain, diarrhea, change in bowel habits, or abnormality is found in the colon X-rays or computerized axial tomography (CT) scan.
Individuals with a history of polyps or colon cancer and certain people with a family history of some types of non-cancerous colon or problems of the colon which may be associated with cancer of the colon (such as ulcerative colitis and colonic polyps) may be advised to have periodic colonoscopies because of the risks they are greater for polyps or colon cancer. How often should a colonoscopy depend on the level of risk and abnormalities found in previous colonoscopies.
It has recommended that even in healthy people of normal risk for colon cancer should undergo colonoscopy at age 50 and every 10 years thereafter, for the purpose of removing colon polyps before they become cancerous.
Generally, colonoscopy is used to investigate the further intestinal disorders after a CT scan. More importantly, used to recognize and treat colon cancer colon polyps, which are abnormal growths on the inner lining of the intestinal wall. Patients who have a history of colon polyps, colitis or ulcerative colitis, and colon cancer are usually advised to undergo colonoscopy actions regularly. other than that colonoscopy is also used in the examination:
- Prolonged diarrhea / chronic
- Changes in bowel habits
- Abdominal pain or rectal
- Abnormalities on CT scan results intestine.
- There is a history of colon cancer in family members, so the risk of colon cancer himself to become larger.
- Experiencing iron deficiency anemia.
- Losing weight drastically and suddenly.
Advantages of using colonoscopy
Colonoscopy provides the following advantages:
- the level of sensitivity in the diagnosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma or polyps reached 95%, colonoscopy serves as a diagnosis through biopsy therapy in polypectomy, colonoscopy can identify and perform synchronous polyp resection and no exposure to radiation.
- colonoscopy is approximately 12% more accurate than barium enema in detecting small lesions such as adenomas.
- Slightly adenoma is not detected by colonoscopy (6% or less for advanced adenoma)
Danger of Colonoscopy must be concern for every patient before take this action. Colonoscopy can bring a significant danger, most often associated with polypectomy, and the most common serious complication is bleeding post polypectomy.
1. Increasing Perforation
Increasing perforation is one of the most often health risk of colonoscopy. Gastrointestinal perforation, which is commonly known as intestinal perforation, is a medical condition characterized by the formation of a hole in the wall of the stomach, small intestine or large intestine, which causes leakage of intestinal contents into the abdominal cavity.
Perforation increases with age and the presence of disease and diverticulosis recently estimated to occur at 1 in 500 population and about 1 in 1,000 patients screened. Because of the influence of age, perforation rate was measured in the population may overestimate the overall risk of perforation on colonoscopy, but a large study on the population of the Northern California Kaiser Permanente also identify the level of perforation occurs in about 1 out of 1,000.
Perforation of the stomach, esophagus or duodenum causing severe pain suddenly which can spread (radiate) to the shoulder. The man looked very painful, with a rapid heart rate, sweating, and a flabby belly and firm to the touch. Because the perforation on the small or large intestine often occur during other painful conditions, and sometimes hindered, symptoms may be a bit dramatic and might actually exacerbate the problem. In all types of perforations, the person is usually nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite.
Doctors usually perform X-rays of the chest and abdomen, which could indicate the air leaking out of the digestive system, a sure sign of the perforation. Sometimes, doctors need to do a computed tomography (CT) scan to confirm the diagnosis.
If doctors diagnose perforation, immediate surgery is necessary. Before the operation, the person receives intravenous fluids and antibiotics. Also, a small pipe inserted through the nose to the stomach to suck the stomach fluid out so they do not flow out perforation.
2. The Risk Of Post-Polypectomy Bleeding
One risk of post polypectomy is bleeding or post-polypectomy bleeding. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (SCBB) can be defined as bleeding that occurs or sourced in the gastrointestinal tract distal to the ligament of Treitz. So it can be derived from the small intestine and colon. In general, this bleeding (about 85%) was marked by the release of fresh blood per anum / rectal acute, transient, self-limited, and does not affect hemodynamic. Post-polypectomy bleeding risk increases with the size of large polyps and bowel proximal location, but small polyps bleeding more than large polyps.
Symptoms are easy to recognize are on turns black stool caused by bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The black color in the stool caused by tainted blood stomach acid.
In addition gastric bleeding symptoms are anemia, pale face, often easy fatigue and pain in the chest and felt dizzy. Vomiting black blood and bloody defecation is a symptom that is most frequently encountered and this usually indicates bleeding disease that has been to a serious stage.
Methods how to treat bleeding through drugs such as drug vasopressin, also somatosatin but should be in a doctor’s supervision. For the next course of treatment by means of certain liquid injection in order to stop bleeding in a blood vessel by using an endoscope.
3. Colonoscopies can kill the good bacteria in the gut
one tangible result is the destruction of the system colonoscopy colon cleansers can kill the good bacteria in the gut. You must consider with this health risk of colonoscopy. it also resulted in disruption of the balance in the intestinal system. in a healthy state, in the gut, there is bacteria average between 3-4 pounds of bacteria. mostly, these bacteria are bacteria that are good for your gut. but when you do a colonoscopy preparation, you just prepare to kill the good bacteria in your gut. because if a colonoscopy bowel in a state wide open to secondary infection, or opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites, etc.
if the good bacteria in the digestive tract less than the bad bacteria, you can detect it from the shape of your stool. good poo have pulpy yellow like a shape of durian. Watery feces or shapeless indicating the strong role of the bad bacteria. Stool color other than yellow also showed disturbances in the body. Fecal test to determine a person’s health is still very little. In the diagnosis of disease, fecal test is used only about 5 percent. The rest use a blood test (80 percent) and urine tests (15 percent).
Modern laboratories are now contributing to the cutting-edge mapping good bacteria and bad bacteria in the gut (intestinal flora), known as the Yakult Intestinal Flora (YIF). This is contributing to the prevention and treatment of various diseases are closely associated with the intestinal flora. Intestinal flora plays a major role, among others, the prevention and treatment of autism, obesity and cognitive impairment.
Stop colonoscopy you do. add more probiotics in your digestive by eating some types of probiotics.
4. Cardiopulmonary Complications
Besides cardiopulmonary complications such as cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, and oxygen desaturation can occur. Cardiopulmonary complications represents about one to one-half of all the bad things that happen during a colonoscopy, and usually associated with sedation:
4a. cardiac arrhythmias
Cardiac arrhythmias is heart problems that occur when the organ beats too fast, too slow, or irregularly. It is caused by electrical impulses that controls the heartbeat is not working properly.
As a result of heart rate becomes too slow, too fast, or irregular, patients with arrhythmias may experience symptoms such as the following: Dizziness Fatigue Shortness of breath Chest pain almost fainting or even fainting
There are some patients who do not require arrhythmias treatment. Treatment is usually given a doctor if they see symptoms of arrhythmia patients could potentially be worse or cause complications. better see your doctor.
Hypotension is a condition when the blood pressure in your arteries is lower than normal.
Not all who have hypotension will feel symptoms. Hypotension condition also does not always require treatment. However, if the blood pressure is low enough, you likely to cause symptoms such as the following: Heart pounding or irregular, Dizzy, Limp, Nausea, Fainting, Loss of balance or feel unsteady, and Blurred vision.
You can consume foods that can increase your blood pressure.
4c. Oxygen saturation
oxygen desaturation is the lack of oxygen in the blood. one of the consequences is hypoxia, a condition of lack of supply of oxygen for the body to function normally. Hypoxia can be a continuation condition of hypoxemia, namely the low supply of oxygen in the blood vessels clean (artery).
Hypoxia symptoms can appear suddenly, rapidly deteriorate (acute) or chronic. Here are some of the symptoms of hypoxia is generally the case: Shortness of breath, Confusion, Sweating, Discolored skin (blue or purplish red), Hard to breathe., Hallucinations, Coughs, Fatigue, Rapid heart rate, and Breath sounds (wheezing).
There are several treatments that be conducted by physicians for patients with hypoxia, namely:
- Supplying oxygen to the body. The patient’s body hypoxia will be supplied oxygen through a tube or oxygen mask. The faster the oxygen levels in the body back to normal, the less the risk of organ damage.
- The hyperbaric chamber. Patients hypoxia caused by carbon monoxide poisoning would normally put into a hyperbaric chamber, which works to increase oxygenated blood.
- Creating a mechanical air duct to distribute the oxygen levels above normal.
Colonoscopy is important in some case of diseases, doctors may know the best treatment for your diseases. Beside its side effects, colonoscopy have many advantages.