Are you familiar with X-rays? Well, X-ray is a tool that can emit the electromagnetic rays. It has the same form as ordinary light rays, infrared and radio waves. X-rays has a form of the electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers and have a frequency about 1016 up to 1021 Hz. This ray wavelengths shorter than UV rays and longer than gamma rays. X-rays were discovered by a scientist from the German named Wilhelm Conrad Rontgent in 1895.
X-rays obtained from the X-ray generator in the form of vacuum tubes. In the vacuum tubes, there are filaments as the cathode and the anode component. If the filament is heated, it will emit electrons and if between the cathode and the anode found a high potential difference, the negatively charged electrons will move accelerated towards the positively charged anode. When electrons collide with the anode, there will be X-ray radiation through two processes, namely the collisional interaction or radiation interaction.
History Of X-Ray
Wilhelm Rontgen was born in 1845 in the city of Lennep, Germany, obtained his doctorate in 1869 from the University of Zurich. At 1888, he was appointed as a scientist in physics and Director of the Physics Institute of the University of Wurburg. From there, in 1895, Rontgen made a discovery that made his name became famous.
Rontgen experimenting with “cathode rays” at November 8, 1895. Cathode rays consist of a stream of electrons. The flow is produced with using a high voltage between the electrodes placed on each end of the glass tube where the water is almost entirely emptied. In this event, Rontgen already fully cover the cathode ray tube with thick black paper, so that when the electric light is turned on, no light can be seen from the tube.
However, when Rontgen powering electrical current in a cathode ray tube, he was surprised to see that the light began anneal on the screen which is located near the benches as stimulated by light. He put out the tube and the screen so that the light stops anneal. Because the cathode ray tube is fully enclosed, Rontgen soon realized that something invisible form of radiation must come from the tube when the electric light turned on. Because this mysterious thing, he calls the invisible radiation “X-rays” The “X” is a symbol of ordinary mathematical for something unknown.
December 1895, Rontgen wrote his first working paper about the X-ray. Within a few months, hundreds of scientists investigating X-rays, and within a year about 1000 working paper published on the subject!
Health Benefits of X-ray In the Medical
X-ray does not contain electrons, but the electrons magnetic waves. Therefore, he essentially similar to the radiation can be visible to the eye (light waves), except X-ray wavelengths much shorter. X-rays are the most recognized in the field of dental treatment and diagnosis. Another as radiotherapy, X-rays are used to destroy or prevent the growth of malignant tumors.
X-rays are also used in various industrial, example to measure the thickness of some object or looking for hidden damage. X-rays are also beneficial in many areas of scientific inquiry, ranging from biology to astronomy. X-rays have brought many benefits:
1. X-Ray Permanent Hair Removal
Wilhelm Roentgen discovered X-rays in 1895, which was then observed by Dr.Leopold Freund from Austria. Leopard observe if the x-rays can cause hair loss because of radiation. Leopard then recommend the x-ray beam is as a treatment for hypertrichosis. Hypertrichosis is a disease such as excessive hair growth on the unusual, such as the face, hands and stomach. However, the x-ray radiation is too strong, and need a tube to shrink the power of x-ray, which is then called Cornell tube.
at 1915, Dr.Geyser claims if the tube Cornell wearing ‘ultrasoft’ x-ray can be used for beauty treatment. Greyser and her son eventually formed Tricho Sales Corporation is applying light and short-wave treatment for their beauty treatment. later, they are discovered side effect of this treatment is that the patient’s skin wrinkles and thickening were found in some parts because of radiation exposure. X-ray clinic lasted until the Middle Ages and up to now there has been no act of beauty through the development of this practice. Just think about radiation and you must think x-ray is a bad treatment.
X-Ray Permanent Hair Removal has some side effects, but it is not enough to cause cancer. For X-Ray Permanent Hair Removal is not to penetrate the inner skin. But there are side effects of those actions, such as redness on the skin, scars, and uneven skin tone. Irritation arising after the laser session can be overcome with a compress on the area of irritation.
One use of X-rays in the medical world is as radiographs. Radiographs are X-ray images obtained from the patient’s body lay in front of an X ray tracer and then irradiating using short-wave X-rays. Because bone has a lot of calcium, they can absorb X-rays effectively.
The effects of radiography on the human body depends on how many doses are given, and it depends on its speed; whether given acutely (within instantaneous) or gradually (little by little).
For example, gamma radiation at a dose of 2 Sv (200 rem) given to the entire body within 30 minutes will cause dizziness and vomiting in some percent of the people affected by the dose, and the possibility of one percent will die within one or two months. For the same dose but administered in a span of one month or more, the effects of acute radiation syndrome does not occur.
Another example, acute radiation dose of 3.5 to 4 Sv (350-400 brakes) were given whole body will cause the death (approximately 50%) of those who received radiation within 30 days. In contrast, the same dose administered uniformly within one year did not result in the same result.
3. As Computed Tomography (CT) scanning
One of most important health benefits of x-rays is used for CT Scan. Others uses of the history of the discovery of X-rays in the medical world is Computed Tomography (CT scanning), a model of medical imaging which images tomographic or pieces of some areas of the body is taken through a two-dimensional X-rays were great.
Risks of x-rays in kind of medical treatment you must consider. Some side effects that may be experienced by CT Scanning:
- Allergic Reactions. CT scanning side effect is an allergic reaction. A liquid form of iodine that is given in a vein to help the observations on the kidneys and blood vessels.
- Skin Disorders and Respiratory Problems. Such as itching, skin rash and itching. The reactions last sometime and can be treated with antihistamines.
- Highly Vulnerable Against Women and Children. The pregnant woman and the fetus is an individual who is very susceptible to the side effects of radiation. Therefore, before doing a CT scan of this, women who are pregnant should inform it on their medical experts and medical experts should have to choose the other alternative methods are considered more secure than the use of CT scans this.
- Risk of Cancer. The use of CT scans that often can lead to over-dose radiation. Over the radiation dose is though still fairly likely lead to health problems, but it can cause cancer.
Radiation therapy (radiotherapy) generally uses the power of X-ray, but can also harness the power of protons or other kinds of energy. Radiotherapy function damage cancer cells by destroying the genetic material that controls cell growth and division of cancer cells themselves.
Most cancer patients will receive radiation therapy as part of treatment. Radiotherapy is used by doctors to help treat almost all types of cancer. Radiation therapy is also useful in treating some types of benign tumors. Here are some reasons why radiotherapy is done:
- As the only type of treatment for cancer.
- Combination with other types of treatments such as chemotherapy to destroy the cancer cells.
- Stop the growth of cancer cells remaining after surgery (adjuvant therapy).
- Reduce the size of the cancer prior to surgery (neoadjuvant therapy).
- In advanced cancer, to relieve symptoms caused by the cancer.
The side effects of radiotherapy depend on the part of body that exposed and how much intensity is used. Maybe someone does not experience any side effects, while others experience some side effects at once.
Most side effects are temporary, able to be controlled, and most importantly, will soon disappear after treatment is completed.
- Head and neck. Radiotherapy conducted around the head and neck, possible side effects include dry mouth condition, which thickens the saliva, sore throat, difficulty swallowing, changes in taste on the food consumed, nausea, mouth sores, and tooth decay.
- Radiation therapy to the chest can cause side effects such as cough, shortness of breath, and difficulty swallowing.
- In the abdomen, side effects that occur are usually nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
- The side effects may include irritation of the bladder, frequent urination, diarrhea, and sexual dysfunction as the effects of radiation therapy in the pelvic. read : health risks of colonscopy
There was also the risk that the public complained after radiation therapy, such as hair loss, skin irritation at the site of therapy, and fatigue.
How to minimize the uses of x-rays
US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) gave guidelines to minimize exposure to unnecessary radiation from X-rays:
- Consider the purpose of the use of X-rays
- Do not reject the use of X-rays if medically necessary and vice versa.
- For pregnant women, avoid or delay the use of X-rays
- Use protective during the procedure of X-rays
- Consider the use of X-rays that allow lower radiation exposure
- Save the results of X-rays to monitor the progress of a disease or disorder.
X-rays have side effects in the use, also has many health benefits. So be wise using X-rays.