Hyperthyroidism or overactive thyroid gland is a condition when thyroxine hormone is excessively produced by thyroid gland in our body. This condition will disturb our body metabolism. Thyroid is a gland in front part of our neck that controls metabolism and our normal function of our body, such as changing food intake into energy. Overactive thyroid gland tends to happen to women than to men, in any range of age, including in the young age. However, it usually comes between our 20-40 years old.
22 Symptoms of Hyperthyroid:
- Fast weight loss.
- Excessive sweat and sensitive to hot temperature. .
- Fast mood changes.
- Fast heart beat.
- Thyroid gland is going bigger which triggers the neck inflammation.
- Palpitation or fast and uncontrollable heart beat.
- Warm and moist skin.
- Twitch muscles.
- Tremor, usually in fingers and hands.
- Skin rash.
- Uneven loosing hair.
- Reddish palm.
- Hyperactive, hard to stay calm and always worry.
- Bad temper and emotional.
- Sexual activity urge reduces.
- Weak muscles.
- Frequent urination and stools.
- The changing in menstrual cycle (irregular, short or stop at once).
- For diabetes patients, hyperthyroid can make the patients feel easily thirsty and fatigue.
5 Conditions that Cause Hyperthyroid:
- Graves Disease.
Mostly hyperthroid is caused by Graves disease. This is a condition where there an abnormality in our autoimmune. Graves disease is considered as a inheritance disease that can happen to female at any range of age, especially those who are 20-40 years old. This disease attacks thyroid gland that triggers the increasing production of thyroid hormones.
The condition that causes this autoimmune abnormality is unknown. However, environmental factor and descendant are considered to have their important role in this disease. Female heavy smoker tend to suffer from Graves disease and automatically it will increase their risk to suffer from hyperthyroid. People who have problems with their autoimmune, such as diabetes type 1 and Addison disease are risky to suffer from hyperthyroid.
Thyroiditis is an inflammation in thyroid gland. This condition is caused by bacteria infection or virus. Thyroiditis will break thyroid gland. As a result, there is a thyroxine hormone leak which eventually causes hyperthyroid.
- Nodules Thyroid.
Nodules is a lump that is formed in thyroid gland and the cause of the lump is unknown. Even though it is not dangerous and does not cause cancer, nodules contains an abnormal thyroid tissue. An increasing of thyroid production in our body is the cause of this lump which eventually lead women to suffer from hyperthyroid.
- Drug Side Effect.
To produce thyroxine hormone, thyroid gland needs iodine in food. Iodine is a substance that can increase the production of thyroxine hormone. If we consume iodine supplement, there will be an excessive amount of thyroxine hormone which eventually will cause hyperthyroid. Amiodoran is a drug that is used to solve the problem of uncontrollable heart beat and it belongs to antiarrhytmic group. This drug causes hyperthroid because it contains iodine.
- Thyroid Cancer.
Thyroid cancer is considered a rare disease. If the thyroid cancer starts from follicles thyroid tissue and cancer cells have produced many thyroid hormone, we will suffer from hyperthyroid.
2 Tests to Diagnose Hyperthyroid:
- Thyroid Function Test.
Thyroid function test is a blood test that is done to know the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone and the level of hormones that are produced by thyroid gland (thyroxine and triiodotironin hormone). The function of thyroid stimulating hormone is to control the production of thyroxine and triiodotironin. In hyperthyroid patients, the level of thyroid stimulating hormone is low.
Meanwhile, the level of the thyroxine and triiodotironin is high. Sometimes, the test result shows the low level of thyroid stimulating hormone. However, the hormone level that is produced by thyroid gland is normal. This condition is known as hyperthyroid subclinical. This condition will be recovered by itself during two months. Thus, we do not need certain medication. However, we still need to take thyroid function test routinely to monitor our health condition.
- Thyroid Isotop Test.
The next test is taken after we are diagnosed to suffer from hyperthyroid. The purpose of this test is to decide the condition that makes thyroid gland overactive. In this test procedure, we are asked to swallow the radioactive substance or isotop in the form of capsule or liquid.
If the isotop that is absorbed by thyroid gland is low, we are suffer from thyroiditis (the inflammation of thyroid gland), high intake of iodine or thyroid cancer. On the contrary, when thyroid absorbs a lot of isotop, the cause of hyperthyroid are nodules thyroid or Graves disease.
4 Types of Medication for Hyperthyroid:
Thionamide is a group of medication that is used to press the production of thyroxine and triiodotironin hormone. The examples of thionamide medicine are carbimazole dan propylthiouracil. This medicine needs to be consumed around 1-2 months so that the changes of hyperthyroid condition can be monitored easily.
The dosage of this medicine will be slowly reduced after the hormone production of thyroid gland can be controlled. The side effect after using this medicine is the pain in our joints and skin rash. The risk of having hypothyroid (less active thyroid gland) because of this medication is lower than radiotherapy.
Radioiodine is a kind of radiothreapy procedure to cure hyperthyroid. The hormones that are produces by thyroid gland will decrease when radioactive iodine (in the low level and not dangerous) shrinking thyroid gland. Radioiodine medication can be consumed either in capsule or liquid. However, there are group of people who are strongly suggested not to consume radioiodine medication. They are:
- Expectant mothers, breast feeding mothers or pregnancy planning mothers.
- Eyes disruption patients (blur vision or bulge eye ball).
After taking radioiodine medication, a woman may not pregnant at least six months after the medication. Meanwhile, for male may not impregnates four months after radioiodine medication. The medication dosage only be given once.
The next medication will only be given after the first dosage with 6 months or 1 year pauses under special condition. However, to make the symptoms recovery faster, thionamide will be given several weeks before we take radioiodine medication. The positive effect of this medication is it has high level of success. Meanwhile, its positive effect is the level of less active thyroid is higher than thionamide.
Beta-blocker is a kind of medicine that is used to overcome the symptoms of hypertiroidisme, such as hyperactive, fast heart beat, and tremor. This medicine cannot be consumed by asthma patients. Beta-blocker is given after the production of thyroid hormone can be controlled by thionamide. The common side effect of this medicine is nausea, shiver hands and feet, insomnia, and frequent fatigue.
- Thyroid surgery
The thyroid surgery needs to be taken under certain condition, such as:
- Re-appearance of hyperthroid after taking thionamide treatment before.
- Worse inflammation in thyroid gland.
- Radioiodine medication cannot be taken because the patients are expectant or in a breast feeding situation. Either the patients cannot or do not want to have a medication procedure using thionamide.
- The patients suffer from eyes problems because Graves disease.
In order to prevent the re-appearance of the disease, it is suggested to take the existence of thyroid gland. Those who undergo total thyroidectomy surgery have to consume the medicine for the whole of their life to overcome the missing function of thyroid gland in our body.
Warning: The medication for hyperthyroid patients are given based on the age, the symptoms, and the hormone level that is produced by thyroid gland in our blood.
Knowing the symptoms and the type of medication are important, especially for women since most hyperthyroid patients are female.