Tongue is one of the vital organs to help us to talk and taste the food. The state of the tongue can be a good indicator of a person in good health or not. Normally, healthy tongue color is pink. Under certain conditions, the tongue may experience various problems. The emergence of black spots on the tongue, for example. This condition can be caused by the daily habits but can also be caused by oral cancer.
Ensuring state why the tongue experiencing black spots is the best step. Besides being able to answer our anxiety over the years, ascertain the cause of black spots on the tongue also makes us early in taking action. We can visit and ask the doctor.
Some causes black spots on the tongue is:
Based on the context of the word, hyperpigmentation means a condition where pigment is going excessively. Hyperpigmentation on the dorsum of the tongue is a tongue papillae symptoms of hyperpigmentation (melanocytes) so that the dorsum of the tongue look black and has unknown cause.
Patients with hyperpigmentation tongue showed no neurological abnormalities to explain the clinical symptoms occur in patients. The aetiology of hyperpigmentation tongue is unknown, but there are several things that affect the occurrence of hyperpigmentation include hormonal factors dorsum of the tongue, anemia, weak intensity chemical trauma and chronic stress.
Patients with hyperpigmentation dorsum of the tongue is usually accompanied by stress and fatigue that may result from a lack of appetite, insomnia, and lack the spirit of doing daily activities. Clinical examination carefully in patients with hyperpigmentation dorsum of the tongue can find candidiasis, black hairy tongue, linea alba bukalis and other oral mucosal lesions.
Patients with symptoms of hyperpigmentation on the dorsum of the tongue are likely to experience interference tongue papillae destruction. Laboratory tests should be performed to detect the presence of anemia.
Symptoms of black tongue as hyperpigmentation dorsum of the tongue can be caused by:
- bad habits excessive coffee consumption,
- stress and fatigue,
- vitamin B deficiency,
- lack of nutrition and
- how to maintain oral hygiene is wrong.
Although hyperpigmentation painless, some people may not be comfortable seeing black spots on the tongue. The black spot feels unattractive and they want to remove it.
Laser surgery can be a solution if you want to remove the black spots on the tongue. In addition, eating some foods such as lemon juice, aloe vera, potato juice, rosehip oil and cucumber juice can also lighten dark spots on the tongue.
Some of the products that contain hydroquinone, such as soy milk, calcium, cucumber, azelaic acid or kojic acid are also able to reduce the production of melanin. The best advice is to visit a dermatologist to determine the cause and proper handling.
2. Tongue Cancer
Foreign tongue cancer spelled out in the community because fewer people newly exposed tongue cancer. Tongue cancer is part of oral cancer, it’s just the location of the attacked cell is tongue. Cancer can affect a number of organs in the human body, including under the tongue. Cancer of the tongue can cause death, but it can be cured with early detection.
Almost 80% of tongue cancer is located at the anterior 2/3 of the tongue (generally on the lateral edge and under the tongue) and in small amounts in the posterior tongue (Daftary, 1992; Tambunan, 1993; Pinborg, 1986). Symptoms in people depending on the location of cancer. When located at the anterior 2/3 of the tongue, the main complaint is the emergence of a mass that often feels no pain. When you arise in the posterior third, the cancer is not always known by the patient and the pain experienced is usually associated with pain throat.
Cancers located anterior 2/3 of the tongue is detected early than the one located in the posterior third of the tongue. Sometimes the regional node metastases lymph may be the first indication of a small cancer of the tongue.
In the early stages, clinically tongue cancer may manifest in various forms, can be patchy leukoplakia (black spots on the tongue), thickening, exophytic or endophytic growth ulcer forms. But mostly in the form of ulcers. Over time this ulcer will experience a deeper infiltration edge do not experience induration. Generally do not cause pain unless there is a secondary infection.
Causes of tongue cancer:
- Repeated trauma to the tongue, for example, the tongue is often bitten
- Consuming old betel
- Chewing tobacco
The main treatment: Amputation of the tongue (tongue cut)
How to prevent Tongue Cancer:
- Maintaining oral hygiene routine, such as brushing teeth
- Early detection when the tongue hurt
- Avoid foods that can cause irritation of the mouth, such as chewing, chewing tobacco.
Symptoms of Tongue Cancer:
- Symptoms are similar to cancer sores. The sores that do not heal for weeks
- There is a small wound on the tongue and if touched, there is hardening around the wound and happens in one part of the tongue continuously.
- Symptoms of cancer sores which were soft and his place on the move.
Early Symptoms of Tongue Cancer
Most of tongue cancer, occurs in the mucosa. Early symptoms of cancer of the tongue is the tongue discomfort, pain, lesions on the tongue with a size of 1-2cm. Symptoms of tongue cancer is divided into 3, namely, mouth sores, exogenous and infiltration. Exogenous symptoms such as ulcers are shaped like cauliflower, accompanied by pain, and pain in the ear and temporal region. Lesions also complicated when infected; possible bleeding, foul-smelling, limited use of the function of the tongue, difficulty eating, difficulty speaking, saliva of difficult to control.
More Symptoms of Tongue Cancer
At this stage, the cancer has grown beyond the central part of the tongue, and already the spread to the lymph nodes. Normally these are spread to cervical lymph nodes, which then followed into the submental lymph nodes and lymph in the other group. The level distribution is quite fast, so you should immediately undergo treatment before severe.
3. Hairy Black Tongue
The most common causes are black spots of fur on the tongue. The fur are located on the tongue, at the pink side. This Conditions is harmless
- Excessive use of antibiotics,
- currently in a period of soft diet,
- conditions of poor oral hygiene,
- drinking alcoholic beverages
are things that can cause black tongue fur.
- Black fur on the tongue does not need intense treatment, we simply change the habits that lead to it.
- stop drinking alcohol, quit smoking and maintain oral hygiene is the most appropriate solution to overcome this problem.
If you have to stop all practices that lead to black tongue fur, but the black spots on the tongue are not dissapear, maybe you suffer from candida Albicans oral or oral fungal infections.
There are many Antifungal drugs and some medications to cure the black spots on the tongue because of the growth of the fungus.
Make sure the diagnosis of the cause of black spots on the tongue and the right to change the habit of consuming alcohol and cigarettes, and always keep the oral hygiene.
4. Fungal Infections
Candida albicans oral or oral fungal infections are infections of the tongue caused by fungal growth on the tongue.
The main cause of the appearance of mold on the tongue is a sheer lack of cleanliness of the tongue, such as irregular toothbrushes, drinking alcohol, smoking and other bad habits.
Change bad habits in treating mouth, keep your mouth healthy. It may be committed with a routine way of toothbrushes, and gargle with mouthwash use, so that bacteria, germs and fungi that can stick on your tongue cleaner, and black spots on your tongue will be lost.
5. Oral Fibroma
Oral fibroma is not a form of cancer even though most people think that oral cancer is fibroma. Oral fibroma is a conical tongue tissue to the top and form a black bumps on the tongue. This is usually caused by trauma to the tongue is often bitten inadvertently for months or even years. No pain caused by oral fibroma except made the tongue appearance becomes unattractive.
Oral fibroma can only be removed surgically. it aims to remove the lump. but there is no guarantee that after surgery Oral fibroma will not reappear. If not removed, fibroma will continue to grow and expand. If this is left unchecked, it can lead to other oral health problems.
To prevent fibroma, it is important to be careful so that the tongue is not often bitten or injured.
In the early stages, oral fibroma will form black spots on the tongue, but it will quickly disappear if often given the appropriate treatment. Providing food containing vitamin C, and also diligently cleaning your mouth area.
6. Tongue Piercing
Many people piercing the tongue as part of their fashion. After piercing the tongue, during healing, black spots may develop on the tongue area.
This is caused by pigmentation in place pierced disappeared. but can be returned to its normal color after a few months.
Basically black spots due to piercing tongue can disappear naturally. We quite maintain the cleanliness of the tongue only. However, in some cases, black spots on the tongue, some are not perished naturally. It can be treated with some medication in consultation with a doctor.
In addition, a tongue piercing can also increase the risk of fungal infections of the tongue. This can then lead to the development of black spots on the tongue.
7. Repetitive Tongue Injuries
The tongue is often bitten can lead to black spots on the tongue. Causes of-equal with other causes that lead to the tongue hurt.
Some oral care, such as the installation of dental appliances that can injure the tongue also can trigger the appearance of black spots on the tongue.
- Enough to keep the tongue does not hurt repeatedly.
- If using equipment that comes into contact with the tongue, making sure not to hurt the tongue. Or if it hurt, it is better to be removed.
8. Allergy And Reactions To Certain Drugs (Reaction to Medications)
Black spots on the tongue can also appear due to allergies and reactions to some type of certain drugs. Typically, drugs that can cause black spots on the tongue is a medicine that contains bismuth salicylate, an asthma drug, anti-depressant, and some kinds of antibiotics.
Because the symptoms appear due to the reaction of certain drugs, then the tongue will be back to normal when we stop using drugs that cause allergies.
9. Drinking Alcohol Or Smoking
Alcohol consumption and smoking can cause black spots on the tongue if done too often. Alcohol consumption and smoking too much can lead to bad breath, tongue tasted bitter and sour, and can also cause the condition of the appearance of dark spots on the tongue. Typically, the black spots on the tongue that appears due to the influence of excessive alcohol and cigarettes are also accompanied by the growth of fine hairs on the black spots on the tongue.
But the black spots on the tongue in smokers and drinkers actually is a kind of fungus that will soon disappear after stopping drinking and smoking, and maintain oral hygiene.
Some women experience black spots on the tongue during pregnancy. in addition, also occurred during the use of contraceptives. this happens because the hormone changes when the pregnancy and contraception.
This is the usual symptoms, no treatment is necessary for not interfere with daily activities. when pregnancy has been completed and no longer using contraception, black spots on the tongue will disappear.
11. Other Causes
In addition to 11 causes that can cause black spots on the tongue, there are several other possible causes, especially related to our consumption.
Black spots on the tongue can also appear due to consumption of certain foods and beverages, such as coffee and tea.
Consumption of certain drugs such as antibiotics, antidepressants, and drugs containing iron salt can also lead to dark spots.
In addition, consuming food and beverages as well as certain drugs, black spots on the tongue can also occur if you have, anemia, chemotherapy, HIV (although rarely), and at the mother’s milk allergy in infants.
- Treatment can be done by brushing the tongue to clean and eliminate black spots on the tongue.
- If it still continues and black spots do not disappear, you should consult with a physician.
Steps To Prevent Black Spot On The Tongue
- Keeping the Mouth. Oral hygiene is the key factor in preventing and eliminating dark spots on the tongue. Black spots caused by food or dark spots caused by the fungus could be prevented if our mouth is in pristine condition. black fur on the tongue also will not grow. How to maintain oral hygiene, can be done by brushing regularly and berkubur with hygienic and germ-killing mouth after brushing teeth.
- Improving Lifestyle. If accustomed to consuming alcohol and meroko, it helps if abandoned. both in addition, may cause black spots on the tongue are also not good for your health. If accustomed to consuming coffee or tea, better to clean the mouth after taking it. Furthermore, if you are also in a period of dieting, it helps if you consume enough water. It could be to clean the black spots on the tongue by eating pineapple.
- Follow Doctor’s’ Instructions. There should consult a doctor if you want to prevent black spots on the tongue. especially if you’ve just done a tongue piercing. Step through the doctor’s advice. If you just do a tongue piercing, most likely you will bruise in tongue pigment. You need to keep a bruise does not extend to the infection. you need to maintain oral hygiene.
Tips on Keeping Healthy Tongue
Maintaining the cleanliness of the tongue means maintaining our health entirely. One of the tongues becomes a breeding ground for bacteria that attack the teeth and gums. Moreover, studies have shown bacteria in the mouth has a relationship with heart disease. Bacteria in the mouth can enter the bloodstream and increase blood clotting and tissue damage to the heart muscle. Tongue cleaning can help remove food debris and reduces the growth of bacteria, fungi, and bad breath. but it also, the tongue cleaner can enhance the flavor of food and stimulates the secretion of digestive enzymes.
For cleaning the tongue can be done with oral cleanser in the form of a toothbrush and floss, can also be done by rinsing.
- Cleaning the Tongue With Toothbrush. If you choose to clean the tongue with a toothbrush. Brush the entire surface of your tongue with a toothbrush clean. Press lightly brush your teeth on the tongue from the back to the front. Most bacteria are behind the tongue.
- Cleaning Tongue With Tongue Cleaner. If you think it is strange use toothbrush to clean the tongue, you can use a tongue cleaner to get rid of black spots on the tongue. However, use a tongue cleaner slowly because otherwise it can hurt your tongue.
- 3. Cleaning Tongue With Antiseptic. You can use gargle with an antiseptic solution after brushing teeth. In addition to eliminating black spots on the tongue, also can prevent tartar and tooth decay problems.
Natural Antiseptic can use turmeric powder with water. Turmeric is antiseptic and anti-bacterial properties that can be used as a remedy to clean your tongue.