Wine is one of popular alcoholic or fermented beverage all over the world. Mostly because people love it taste and believe that red wine can give a lots benefit to the body. The word wine derived from latin word vinum which means grape. There are many types of wine that we can found nowadays including red wine. Red wine is consider as dry wine which means there is only little or even no sugar left after fermentation process of the grapes. Red wine usually not only consumed as beverage but also it goes with some food that categorized as heavy dishes.
The tradition of making red wine through fermentation process has started since 6000 BC in Georgia( an area between Europe and Asia) and Iran. People has consumed red wine and make it as medicine dates back to 2200BC. it is one of the oldest medicine that used by human. Historically, red wine has been used since long ago to treat many disease such as skin and digestion problem. It is also known as effective antiseptic and painkiller.
Types of Red Wine
There are 6 main types of red wine that available in store nowadays. They are :
- Cabernet Sauvignon. This type of red wine made from Vidure grapes which is the type of grape that popular grown in Australia. This red wine get rich taste of ripe grapes.
- Chianti. Chianti is well known as Italian red wine. It consider as the oldest wine that has rich berry fruity taste and produced from Sangiovese grapes also Cabernet sauvignon grapes.
- Merlot. Merlot mostly produces in France area, Bordeaux and it has similarity with Italian red wine.
- Pinot Noir. Pinot Noir has soft flavor characteristic and velvety textures. The taste of pinot noir is so rich and not acidic or tannic.
- Sangiovese. This red wine originally from Tuscani dates back to 1722. This type of grapes is also grown well in California and nowadays it used to produces most number of red wine.
- Zinfandel. This red wine is the oldest type of wine from California but the grapes are hardly to cultivated.
In a single drink or serving of red wine ( 5 Oz, 147 g or 150ml ) contains nutrients which is listed below :
- Sodium 6 mg
- Potassium 187 mg/13% DV ( Daily Value )
- Total Carbohydrate 3.8 g/1% DV
- Sugar 0.9 g
- Protein 0.1 g
- Calcium 1% DV
- Vitamin B-6 5% DV
- Iron 3% DV
- Magnesium 4% DV
Health Benefits of Red Wine
Red wine contains some active substance that can enhance the body function. Some of substance that contained in red wine is resveratrol, polyphenol and alcohol. The health benefits of red wine comes from the grape itself and maybe from the fermented alcohol. Below are the list of benefits of red wine :
1. Prevent Cancer
Red wine contains polyphenols which presence as a complex mixture of flavonoids (such as anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols) and nonflavonoids (such as resveratrol, cinnamates, and gallic acid). These all polyphenols act as antioxidant which can prevent the body from free radical damage. Free radical damage is the main cause of DNA damage which leads to the development of certain types of cancer.
2. Decrease cholesterol
Regular moderate wine consumption can give a healthy blood cholesterol profile. Red wine can increase the level of HDL or high-density lipoprotein which known as good fat. The HDL or good fat also play important role in reducing excess cholesterol within the body.
Consuming red wine while enjoying fatty food can be a good option since the red wine can decrease the LDL, Low density lipoprotein of bad fat amount in the blood. According to Njajao et al, a study that conducted in 2009 reported that red wine can clear the cholesterol within the food and make it healthier to be eaten.
3. Prevent heart disease
According to some research, red wine has significant effect in maintaining healthy heart. Red wine contains resveratrol which can prevent the damage of arteries or prevent the cholesterol to enter the blood vessel lining. It is also believed that moderate consumption of red wine will optimize the heart function.
4. Prevent atherosclerosis
Antioxidants contained in red wine called polyphenols may help protect the lining of blood vessels or arteries that leads to reduce the risk of heart disease.This polyphenol called resveratrol. According to a study by Aviram and Fuhrman in 2002 reported that resveratrol in red wine can inhibit the formation of plaque inside the blood vessel or arteries line and prevent from atherosclerosis.
5. Fight inflammation
Based on study that conducted by La¬grue-Lak-Hal and Andriantsitohaina in 2006 reported that the resveratrol or polyphenols content in red wine not only reduce the risk of heart disease but also fight and reduce inflammation inside the body. Another epidemiological study also found that person who take daily consumption of red wine has lower levels of systemic inflammatory compared to non-drinker.
6. Boost immune system
Red wine as well as grape juice and grape extract show significant effect in supporting immune system function. According to study by Estruch et al. In 2004, the antioxidant in red wine along with the polyphenols can increase the count of white blood cells which known as the immune cells.
White blood cells play important role in fighting and prevent from certain disease. The study show that after two weeks of consumption person who drink at least two glass of wine (300 mL) a day can give positive and greater effect to immune system.
7. Lower blood pressure
According to Carollo et al, the polyphenols content in red wine vasorelaxing effects ( the effect which allow the blood lining getting expanded so the blood passage become larger) which can lower the blood pressure. Dealcoholize red wine and consumption red wine along with have lowered blood pressure in patient with hypertension also coronary heart disease ( study by Foppa et al. 2002, Park et al. 2004, Karatzi et al. 2005, Jimenez et al. 2008)
8. Prevent diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by high level of sugar within the blood which is caused by insulin resistance. A study has been proven that moderate consump0tion of red wine can prevent the onset of diabetes type 2 and increase insulin sensitifity. The polyphenols which act as antioxidant properties in red wine may be responsible for this positive effect.
The polyphenols complex such as resveratrol, quercetin, catechins, and anthocyanins can significantly lower blood glucose and prevent hyperglycemia. They can improve the beta-cell pancreas function in producing insulin , and also protect against beta-cell loss consuming at least 250ml red wine a day can increase insulin sensitifity especially to women after menopouse. .
9. Reduce the risk of Alzheimer
An Epidemiological study by Letenneur,Pinder and Sandler in 2004 show that moderate red wine intake may reduce the risk of devel¬oping some neurological disorders, such as dementia, stroke, and Alzheimer’s disease especially in elderly ages. The antioxidant and polyphenols within the red wine protect the brain cells from damage and promote healthy brain cells development.
10. Prevent metabolic syndrome
According to a study conducted by Leighton et al in 2006, red wine has ability to increase metabolism process and prevent metabolic syndrom that can lead to several disease such as heart disease and diabetes type 2.
11. Prevent bacteria infection
There are some researches that provide preliminary data show that red wine can inhibit the growth of certain bacteria such as streptococci that can cause oral problem including tooth decay or gum bleeding. (Daglia et al. 2007)
12. Protect eye function
The antioxidant which contained in red wine can protect the yes from certain damage including the damage which caused by free radicals. Study by Obisesan et al. In 1998 reported that moderate wine drinkers have lower risk of developing age-related macular degeneration compared to those who are nondrinkers.
13. Protect against radiation injury
A study which conducted by Liu and Zhong in 2008 show that red wine contains a substance called procyanidins that can protect the body cells from radiation injury.
14. Protect from kidney disorder
Health benefits of red wine will be best for your kidney (with normal consumptions). Some studies which conducted by Rodrigo and Rivera 2002, Caimi et al. 2004, Presti et al. 2007 reported that red wine consumption can treat renal or kidney disease and prevent the kidney from oxidantive stress also the endothelial dysfunction
15. Reduce the risk of osteoporosis
Regular consumption of wine ( not more than 4 glass a day) can maintain bones density and reduce the risk of osteoporosis which commonly developed in elderly women.
16. Protect the liver
Not only good for heart, red wine can also protect the liver from damage. Study by Pinzani et al in 2005 show that centenarians that live healthy used to drink wine (≤500 mLdaily) and they has better liver condition rather than those who are non drinkers.
17. Improve lung function
There are some data which reported that red wine consumption can improve lung function and prevent it from chronic pulmonary disease. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of red wine may take responsibility of this benefits
18. Prevent from ulcer
A recent study that conducted by Gao et al in 2010 show that moderate drinkers of wine has lower infection rate of Helicobacter pylori,this bacteria is well known as the factor that cause infection in ulcer. Red wine contains constituents that act as antibiotic and inhibit the growth of H. Pylory.
19. Maintain healthy weight
Drinking red wine along with consumption of some food can be beneficial. Red wine contains substance that can break down the fat and when it consumed by the body, the content of red wine can sligthly decrease the fat cells in the body. Isn’t it a good news for you who wanna have slimmer waist line?
Health Risk of Red Wine
Although red wine offer many health benefits, excessive consumption of red wine can be a serious problem. Three or more drinks a day can increase the risk of certain disease such as obesity, heart disease, hypertension, stroke, breast cancer, suicide and even injury ( according to survey which conducted by Saremi and Arora in 2008.
Red wine contains histamine that can also trigger migraine, cough and wheezing to people who are suffering from histamine intolerance (Wantke et al. 1996). . People who are pregnant or under medication should avoid to consume red wine.
Tips to Consume Red Wine
Moderate amount of red wine can give you many benefits. If you never drink red wine before check these tips on how to consume red wine
- Purchase good quality of red wine and know the types before you wanna purchase it
- Check the label of red wine on its bottle to make sure it provides best quality red wine
- Store the red wine in cool room temperature or in a cellar and avoid to store it in fridge
- Serve red wine in its best temperature (<65 degrees Celsius) if you consume the red wine in cold temperature it will have bitter taste and if the serving temperature are more than 65 degrees Celsius the red wine will smell too alcoholic
- If you want to get benefits, drink moderate amount of red wine. One drink per day can be best for women and two drink for men. One single drink is measured as 5 oz or 150ml beverage.