Insulin resistance is a scourge that worries anyone since the beginning of the forerunner of pre-diabetes to type 2 diabetes mellitus, and even increase the risk of other complications such as heart attack and stroke. Insulin resistance is a condition in which insulin secreted by the pancreas to control blood sugar levels in the body is no longer working properly. The body’s cells need sugar (glucose) for energy. When eating carbohydrates, your body will turn it into glucose. Furthermore, glucose will be carried through the bloodstream to the body’s cells. Because the glucose molecules can not penetrate the cell wall, it needs the help of insulin to keep glucose remains in the cell. In some people, the cells do not respond to insulin properly, and this condition known as insulin resistance symptoms.
Insulin resistance in fat cells reduces the effect of insulin and lead to increased triglyceride hydrolysis reserves, if no steps are good for increasing insulin sensitivity or by providing extra insulin. Increased mobilization of lipid reserves in the blood plasma. Insulin resistance in muscle cells will reduces glucose uptake in the body, whereas insulin resistance in liver cells causing disruption of glycogen synthesis and failure to suppress glucose production.
The symptoms of insulin resistance
Although not showing obvious symptoms, but the signs in people who already had the characteristics of insulin resistance can be detected by reading the physical state of the person, includes:
- Being overweight or obese
Excess body weight can reduce the body’s sensitivity to insulin, especially if you have a BMI (body mass index) over 30. Obesity is a condition where there is excess fat accumulation, both in general and localized. Obese individuals who have fat accumulation in the abdomen at risk of impaired glucose tolerance, non-insulin and other metabolic disorders are higher.
Obesity will cause disruption of the insulin ability to affect glucose uptake and metabolism in tissues sensitivity to insulin (which is often called insulin resistance), and increased plasma insulin secretion. Losing weight and a healthy diet can reduce this risk significantly.
Obese people can become resistant to insulin, causing an increase in the insulin hormone in the blood. Insulin reduces lipolysis (fat breakdown) and increase the formation and uptake of fat. Fat responds to carbohydrate raise insulin and reduce the use of fatty acids. Insulin resistance has been known to be one of the characteristics of obesity and type 2 diabetes.
- Skin Problems
Insulin influence the blood circulation, and make the dysfunctional sweat glands and making the skin becomes scaly, itchy, dry, and irritation. This symptoms is quite difficult to detect as insulin resistance, because many other causes lead to skin problems like this. But you need to be vigilant if these skin problems such as black spot.
- The emergence of subcutaneous fat and visceral
Sub-cutaneous fat are visible fat on the waist, and a lot of research state that waist fat is one of the causes of insulin resistance. Additionally, some researchers have found that the sub-cutaneous fat around the waist produces certain hormones as opposed to insulin. It will cause the risk of insulin resistance.
While Visceral fat is the fat that hidden and not visible for the eye directly and arising in the liver, heart, kidney and pancreas. These fats interfere with the pancreas. Typically, the visceral fat appears in people who have a thin body. People who have hidden fat is called skinny fat. Visceral fat also produces hormones that act as opposed to insulin, causing insulin resistance.
- high triglyceride levels
Obesity that is not controlled be the most common causes of high triglycerides. High triglyceride levels occurs because somebody consume lots of foods containing carbohydrate or high sugar levels. Risk of heart disease increases in a person with triglyceride levels.
- Poor quality of sleep
Studies show that poor quality of sleep, especially sleep apnea, can increase the risk of insulin resistance. Apnea is a common disorder in a person with disturbed breathing during sleep. People who experience apnea often moved from the bed and did not feel well because experiencing shallow breathing that causes excessive drowsiness and sleep much during the day.
- High blood pressure or hypertension
When you have a high blood pressure, your chances of becoming insulin resistant is 50-50. Excess insulin is associated with increased body fat and obesity. These conditions interfere with normal fat metabolism, increase levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. Its interfere with the nervous system, including the signals that regulate blood pressure.
It can provoke the sympathetic nervous system, which causes the heart to pump with more intensity and arteries constrict. In addition, these conditions create an imbalance of sodium and potassium (which increases the volume of blood) and calcium and magnesium (which cause narrowing of the arteries), raises blood pressure and increases the risk of heart disease.
- Excessive Thirst
People with insulin resistance is have frequent urination. Increased urge to urinate affects fluid in the body and resulting in dehydration. Dehydrate the body will provide a response in the thirst form to restore the lost fluids.
- Fungal Infections
When patients experienced insulin resistance excessively, it will affect the immune system of patients. The body will be susceptible by bacteria and fungi . The more bacteria or fungus that enters the body during the immune system is not prepared to fortify the body. If it is so, especially for women are experiencing vaginal discharge due to candida infections (fungus).
- Disorders of the gums
Of the events that had passed, insulin resistance is more vulnerable to damage the gums. Such as the gums become red, swollen and irritated. Some even feel the shrinking gums from the teeth and gum infections there.
- The process of wound healing is happens slowly
The presence of injuries when body condition was not good, as excess blood sugar makes the immune system becomes abnormal. Certaintly, it affects to the recovery rate cut or bruise, it will take longer than usual.
- Fatty liver
The accumulation of fat in the liver can be caused by uncontrolled fat due to insulin resistance. The presence of fat in the liver was normal but if the amount is more than 5% -10% of the weight of the liver, it can cause diseases that can cause some serious complications.
- Suffering from polycystic ovarian syndrome
It is a medical condition characterized by a small cysts around in the edge of the ovaries, also known as polycystic ovaries, a female sex hormone imbalance. High androgen levels can cause symptoms, such as infrequent menstrual periods, prolonged or even not happen menstruation, excessive hair growth, acne and weight gain in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This condition is usually diagnosed in women aged between 20 and 30 years.
The condition of the arterial wall thickening and hardening of large or medium. Arteriosclerosis can causing stroke, coronary artery disease, and peripheral blood vessel disease.
- Injuries to the skin
The injuries to the skin such as acanthosis nigrikan and skin tags. Most people with insulin resistance may experience a condition called acanthosis nigrikan with characteristic black spot on the neck, armpit, or groin. Meanwhile, a skin tag is a prominent skin surface or hanging.
- Impaired growth
High insulin levels can impact the growth of the body due to its own insulin is the hormone that supports the growth.
- Increased appetite
symptoms of insulin resistance in men is becoming increasingly appetite. This condition can make your body into fat and will experience the disease of obesity. certainly people who have this body shape, could lead to increasingly lost confidence.
Especially if it is experienced by women, who want to always look over the ideal body shape and weight. As compared to men, women were more to maintain and always pay attention to the condition of the body shape, beginning with food.
How to reduce the risk of insulin resistance
But the good news is there are things you can do to reduce the risk of insulin resistance. Here’s how it can be applied:
- Exercise for at least half an hour a day with the kind of moderate activity, such as brisk walking. Perform this activity at least 5 times a week.
- Get used to eating healthy foods, such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, lean proteins, and whole grains (or such as whole grains).
- Keep your weight to remain normal. If you are overweight, consult a physician to undergo a healthy weight loss program.
- Limit the consumption of carbohydrates with high glycemic index can raise blood sugar quickly, such as white bread, raw sugar, and raw corn. Do not do the habit of eating processed potato products such as donuts, potato chips and french fries anymore.
- Consumption of foods with a low glycemic index, such as fiber-rich foods (brown rice and whole wheat bread) and flour free vegetables (asparagus, carrots, broccoli).
Therefore, insulin resistance may not cause specific symptoms, then the best way to find out is to do a blood test in order to know the levels of blood sugar and A1C tests. As a precautionary measure, you should check your blood sugar levels every three years, even if your blood sugar levels quite normal.