Diabetes mellitus often undiagnosed by doctors when affects to children because of the symptoms is not so clear. It is only ultimately up to the advanced and traumatic symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, shortness of breath, and even coma. The data showed a small study, the number of children with diabetes continues to increase, along with the changes of lifestyles. Diabetes in children is influenced by various factors, such as poor diet, diabetes history in the family, children born with low birth weight, and obesity
Fact about children patient type 1 and type 2 Diabetics
Type 2 diabetes is usually triggered by obesity, used to only affect an adults but now has been diagnosed in children aged around 6 years. Children with type 2 diabetes is less when compared with type 1 sufferers. According to the largest study that held in the United States, only about 3,700 children are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes while another 15,000 children suffering from type 1 within one year.
Judging from many aspects, these two very different types of diabetes: In type 1 diabetes the cause is still unknown, the immune system suddenly turns against body health cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, the hormone that causes the body to absorb the energy from food intake. To overcome these pancreatic abnormalities, children usually require several injections of insulin several times a day. In Type 2, the pancreas usually produces insulin in large quantities, but the entire network of cells in the body difficulty processing them. This condition called insulin resistance.
Symptoms of diabetes in children
Symptoms of diabetes in children with type 1 diabetes in particular is that the child’s breath smells sour or seton. It is certainly different from the symptoms of diabetes in adults. There are at least three signs that can be used to determine the child who have diabetes or not, began to sign in general, emergency signs, and a sign of the fact.
Then what the symptoms of diabetes in children with either diabetes type 1 and type 2 in general? Here are the signs that you can know.
- Bedwetting occurs after a long absence
Other symptoms that should be awared byparents if the child is suddenly wet. For example, 3-4 years old children who do not have bedwetting, then suddenly wetting again. Well, it should be suspected as a symptom of diabetes.
- Weight loss
Although the child eat more than usual ammount, but the children is still lose their weight. Without the energy intake of sugar, then the muscle tissue and fat reserves will shrink. Weight loss can not be explained are often the first symptoms are noticed.
- Children become easily tired and lethargic
This is because the cells is have very short intake of sugar. Not because the body does not receive food or sugar intake from beverages, but more because of the food and drink consumed can not be absorbed into the intake of sugar. As a result, the body becomes weak and lethargic easy.
- Blurred vision
If the child’s blood sugar is too high, there are lot of things that will occur in the body, including fluid required by the eye can be drawn from the lens of the eye that affects a child’s ability to focus clearly. This is also the reason why people with diabetes in the long run doomed to eye health problems.
- Fungal Infections
Fungal infection of the genitals can be the first sign of type 1 diabetes in girls. The symptoms of diabetes can also cause a yeast infection of vital organs of children, particularly girls. This is precisely what will cause diaper rash.
- Problems irritable behavior
Children who suffer from diabetes also will undergo behavioral problems. Children tend to be more irritable and moody. This is occurs because of the increased blood sugar levels are high as well as physical and psychological conditions that are unhealthy. Moreover, the body fluid can not be absorbed properly.
The Emergency Sign for Children with diabetes
Signs above is a common sign, while following sign is an indication of an emergency. You should seek medical care immediately if your child has one or more symptoms such as the following:
World Diabetes Foundation recommends to suspect diabetes in children if you experience clinical symptoms typical 3P and high blood sugar levels, above 200 mg / dl. 3P symptoms are:
- Easy thirst and frequent urination, causing subsequent polidipsi and polyuria
The most common symptoms of diabetes in children is the increased thirst. This is due to an increase blood sugar levels and cause children to more frequent of urination. Excess sugar builds up in the blood stream of children will make the liquid drawn into the network, it is likely to make children become thirsty. As a result the child drink and urinate more often than usual. They would also prefer to consume cold sweet drinks.
- Always hungry, resulting polifagi
In addition to frequent thirst, the children also will be easily hungry. Because the absence of insulin to transfer sugar in the body so that this process will be spending their energy and make them quickly hungry.
The early symptoms of the above commonly called the 3P, namely polifagi, polidipsi, and polyuria This 3P is caused by insulin is absent or too little. If insulin is not there or very little, the body’s metabolic process can not occur. As a result, sugar levels in the blood increases.
- Acanthosis nigricans
This skin hyperpigmentation, which means dark. Altought, the children has the symptoms are often misdiagnosed with eczema neck, too. The same dark skin in areas not exposed to the sun such as the armpits and groin.
Signs Fact: The signs of diabetes in children is different from adults
There are some things you have to understand, that the signs of diabetes in children is different from adults. According to Loro Laffel, MD, section head of children, adolescents, and adults at the Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard University states that “Diabetes is one of the chronic diseases that most often affects children in addition to asthma, but the percentage of patients with this disease is still relatively small “Based on the study, more than 9 million children detected with asthma, while about 192,000 children suffering from type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
The diabetes that suffered by the children more difficult to detect than it affects adults. There are differences in signs between adults and children with diabetes:
- The white race Children at high risk
Many people who have heard that diabetes only affects ethnic minorities, but based on Youth Study who opt for research on the disease, 71% of the total population of children with diabetes, is a white-skinned children. According to Dana Dabelea, MD, PhD, associate professor at the University of Colorado Denver Health Sciences Center state “Type 1 diabetes whose cases are more common than type 2 showed a surge statistically higher in group patients with children of the white race,” Even though the type of 2 is more common in children of minorities – the descendants of African-American and Hispanic -the risk they developed of diabetes is much lower than white children.
- Diabetes in children is not only due to the consumption of sweet foods
Although type 2 diabetes is generally associated with obesity, the impact of sugar on blood glucose levels no greater than other types of carbohydrates such as rice and potatoes. The doctor is very concerned about the sugar, mainly because the sugar is found in fattening foods such as biscuits and ice cream that is children favorite foods.
- Children with diabetes does not necessarily require insulin injections
Many children who suffer from type 2 diabetes can keep their blood sugar levels remain stable with the diet, lose weight and exercise regularly that helps the effectiveness of insulin. If the lifestyle changes are not enough effective, oral medications like metformin can help. Children need help insulin-all children who suffer from type 1 diabetes and half of all children with type 2 diabetes need insulin injections -not every day.
- A child with diabetes is feeling healthy, but he still has a risk of serious complications
When the child with diabetic is feeling very healthy, not meant he hasn’t a risk of complication. The best how is keeping blood sugar levels in the normal range for life is the key to prevent various health problems. If untreated, diabetes can progress to a heart attack, liver damage which is also known as cirrhosis, blindness, limb amputation due to poor blood circulation, as well as kidney failure, which means patients must undergo dialysis process with the help of a dialysis machine for a lifetime.
Complications of diabetes in children
Diabetes in children can cause acute and chronic complications. Acute complications that can lead to death due to diabetes patients are untreated hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia due to excessive treatment. Chronic complications are the major blood vessel abnormalities in the heart and brain, or small blood vessels in the eye, kidney, and nerve fibers.
Hyperglycemia can cause children to always feeling:
- frequent urination,
- loss of consciousness, and
- died suddenly.
While hypoglycaemia often makes children:
- fainting, and
- permanent cell damage that interfere with organ function and growth process of children.
Coronary heart disease, kidney failure, blindness, numbness, or die in young adulthood is a chronic complication of diabetes that usually occurs after children become teenagers.
Prevention and Control for diabetic children
Two things to be a key element in the prevention and control of diabetes is diet and exercise or physical activity.
- Controlling the diet is one of the important things in preventing the incidence of diabetes in children. Here, the role of parents is very large. Diet in children is very difficult to control, a variety of snacks both in the home and school environment, could not entirely supervised by an adult. Controlling diet means:
- adopting a healthy lifestyle,
- set a balanced diet and not consuming sugat excessively,
- reduce junk food and fizzy drinks
- Another thing which is also important in preventing diabetes is exercise or physical activity. Exercise can help to increase your body’s sensitivity to insulin. While physical activity is good for growth and maintaining a healthy body.
Tips to treat diabetes in children
If you have found one of the diabetes symptoms in your child or more, then immediately to perform the test. The testing procedure is very easy and painless. It would be better if your child is diagnosed as early as possible before the disease develops into more severe diebetes.
Although type 2 diabetes is not curable, children can control the disease through proper diet and adequate exercise. However, once the disease becomes more severe, then insulin injections and medication may be needed to be able to control it. Parents need to regulate insulin injections for the child until the child is able to take care of himself. Compared with traditional hypodermic needle injectors, pen injectors are more comfortable to use.
Food for children with diabetes
Children with diabetes can eat like other children. They can eat what they want, including candy or chocolate, but of course, with certain limits. Food intake of children with diabetes focused on nutritious food, high in vitamins and minerals, as well as cut the intake of fat, sugar, or empty carbs, such as:
- Reduce saturated fatty foods are unhealthy, as found in bacon, full-fat milk, and butter. Better consumption of salmon is high in omega 3 fatty acids and fat-free milk and yogurt.
- Consumption enough fiber (25-30 grams per day) in order to help control blood sugar obtained from seeds, nuts, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables.
- Eating fresh fruits and natural, such as citrus fruits and berries. The fruit is a source of natural sugar.
- When eating vegetables, choose fresh and do not add salt or sauce. Vegetables can be consumed include green leafy vegetables, tomatoes, peppers, onions, cucumbers, celery, carrots, beets, asparagus, and
- Calculate the amount of carbohydrate that goes into the stomach. Carbs turn into sugar in the blood, resulting in blood sugar levels will rise an hour after eating. Carbohydrates can be obtained from whole grains (pasta, bread, cakes), fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and sugar.
- Do not forget to eat protein derived from meat, nuts, and eggs.
The treatment should always be followed by regular monitoring of blood glucose levels. In addition to insulin, the doctor usually may prescribe medication more after evaluate conditions. Effective management of diabetes requires a healthy diet for diabetics include foods that rich in fiber, fruits and vegetables in the diet, and reducing the consumption of carbohydrates. Regular physical activity is also important to overcome diabetes.